#### Bending Basics 2012

Dissecting bend deductions and die openings
September 2012

Changing the die opening can dramatically change results during air forming. In precision sheet metal fabrication, choosing the correct die opening should not be a guessing game.

The basics of applying bend functions
November 2012

Why calculate values such as bend allowance, outside setback, and bend deductions? Because sometimes you will need to work your way around a bend on a print, and you may not have all the information you need to complete a flat pattern.

### Bending Basics 2013

January 2013

Press brake guru Steve Benson describes how the method of bending—coining, bottom bending, or air forming—is very influential on how an inside bend radius is achieved.

Finding the perfect die opening
February 2013

By choosing a die opening as close to perfect as possible, your consistency will improve, your setup and run times will get shorter, and the risks of running into problems will be greatly reduced.

Why do die angles change
June 2013

In air forming, the bend angle does not depend exclusively on the angle of the die. So why does the die angle change? There are two separate but overlapping answers; one relates to narrow die openings, and the other pertains to larger dies.

Why tonnage matters
August 2013

Selecting the press brake and tooling for a job involves much more than just making sure there’s enough brute force. You need to calculate how much tonnage the job requires, then determine the best machine and tooling to handle the tonnage.

The fundamentals of heavy bending
December 2013
When bending on a press brake, thicker and harder plates require larger minimum bend radii. Finding the true minimum bend radius for steel or aluminum plate requires a little research. Nonetheless, the answers are there, waiting for you to find them.

### Bending Basics 2014

Large or profound-radius bends are those in which the inside bend radius exceeds eight times the material thickness, but is still too small to move to the plate roll. At this point, a press brake operator has to change his mindset before proceeding. This is not a typical bending job.

Streamlining press brake setups
March 2014

Press brake setup is a critical part of doing any bending job correctly. By focusing on a few key areas—selection of tools and forming processes, easy-to-understand setup sheets, and ISO documentation—the press brake operator is in a much better position to succeed.

Strategies for forming offsets
May 2014

If you pick the right offset tool for the job, you’ll find you will be able to produce many different offset geometries quickly and safely.

Why exactly does springback occur, and how can a technician predict it? Press brake guru Steve Benson covers the basic factors.

### Bending Basics 2015

What inside bend radius you can achieve hinges on tonnage requirements and available die-opening widths

Why buy new tooling for a sheet metal hand brake
February 2015

When bending with a hand brake, you can use the tooling that came with the machine, but investing in a tool with a radius on the punch nose has its benefits.

March 2015

A material’s minimum inside bend radius shows the smallest radius that’s physically possible in an air bend, though your machines and tooling may not be able to handle the tonnage. The recommended inside bend radius, such as those found on bend allowance charts for air bends, shows you what’s optimal in typical applications

The 4-pillars of press brake tonnage limits
April 2015
To ensure you always work within the tonnage limits of your press brake and tooling, first calculate how much tonnage you need. Second, identify your tooling’s load limits. Third, calculate the sinking tonnage limit, which, if exceeded, can embed tooling into the ram or bed. Fourth, determine your press brakes’ centerline load limit.

How an air bend turns sharp
May 2015

Why do air bends in cold-rolled steel turn sharp at an inside radius that’s about 63 percent the material thickness? It has to do with the relationship between forming forces and a material’s tensile and yield strength.

Forming aluminum on a press brake
June 2015

Air bending soft aluminum has such a low tensile strength that it doesn’t take much for a narrow punch tip to penetrate the surface and turn the bend sharp.

Using the 20 percent rule works well when calculating the floated radius in an air form, but what about the radius at different bend angles? To calculate this, we start with geometry to find the arc length and radius at different bend angles. We then manipulate these results by factoring in real-world bending conditions.

You can use some common rules of thumb to predict the inside bend radius when air forming, and the results you get are usually close enough, but with the help of a few online calculators, you can get even closer.

#### Grand Unifying theory of bending on a press brake

Press brake guru Steve Benson proposes a new theory of bending, altering some long-held labels and definitions and introducing new formulas. Those long-held definitions worked well, but these new definitions and formulas may help a press brake technician become even more accurate in predicting how a part will form.

Radius bends—defined here as any bend with an inside radius greater than 125 percent of the material thickness—require careful calculation, not only because of their significant springback, but also because of the tooling these bends require. This includes the use of relieved dies.

In this installment of the Grand Unifying Theory of bending, press brake guru Steve Benson describes bending calculations for aircraft tooling. He also covers the basics of bottoming.

This month Steve Benson summarizes his grand unifying theory of radius, bend deduction, and die selection with a review and complete rundown of the bend calculations, from estimating springback to working the bend functions.

### Bending Basics 2016

10-tips for bottoming aluminum
January 2016

Bottom bending can work well for some aluminum grades, but it requires knowledgeable operators who fully grasp the bending method and know what precautions to take.

Whether you are a press brake technician or you are programming in CAD, having a basic understanding of notching can lead to better products and a more efficient operation.

Bending guru Steve Benson continues his discussion of notching, which has a symbiotic relationship with bending. Nowadays CAD systems take care of the layout calculations. Nonetheless, manual notch layout is still used for one-off products or in prototype shops.

Applying the 20% rule to 6061 aluminum
April 2016

Four areas to consider when bending include (1) formability; (2) thickness and bend radius; (3) tensile, yield, and elongation; and (4) how to deal with bending tempered materials. This month, Steven Benson applies these to forming 6061 aluminum.

Which press brake is best
May 2016

No press brake is best for every application, but you can find a press brake that’s best for you. To find that press brake, you need to match what’s available—hydraulic, hybrid, electric, mechanical, and other styles, along with the tooling—with what your operation needs.

When considering a new press brake purchase, focus on the tooling and forming method first. How will your staff react to changes? How steep will the learning curve be? Also, think about where your company is headed and the markets it serves.

Applying sheet metal forming principals to plastic
July 2016

Anytime the inside radius or material thickness varies, there will be a change in the bend deduction. This is just as true when bending plastic as it is when bending sheet metal.

When determining the backgauge position, you need to know the outside flange dimension and bend deduction, based on the actual radius you achieve.

Determining the root causes of bending failure
September 2016

When determining the root causes of part failure, look to not just the forming method and tooling, but also the quality of material. Cheap material can be extremely costly over the long run.

As parts become more complicated and our machines get more sophisticated and precise, there is a real need to be much more precise in our trade-related language

What makes an air bend sharp on a press brake
November 2016

Press brake operators use rules of thumb when it comes to determining sharp bends. But what truly determines the point at which a bend turns sharp is the relationship between the punch nose radius, the tonnage required to form, and the shear strength of the material.

Proper measurement of formed parts
December 2016

Measuring hems, acute angles, and unparalleled flanges isn’t difficult—if you have the right tools and dimensional information, and you know how to use both properly.

### Bending Basics 2017

Breaking the time barrier
January 2017

Press brake bending basics: Breaking the time barrier. Getting estimates right requires good information and, not least, good operators and engineers. Making accurate time estimates requires both complete information about the job at hand as well as technical talent, both in engineering and in press brake operation.

Tooling choice when forming aluminum
February 2017

When choosing tools to bend aluminum, as always, you need to consider the naturally floated radius as well as where the bend turns sharp. You also may consider forming certain aluminum grades in the annealed condition.

Do the rules of precision bending apply to heavy plate fabrication? Of course they do. After all, it’s really just a matter of scale.

Press brake gauging conundrum just in it.
April 2017

Forming a complex part requires creative thinking, and not only about how to gauge each bend. Every part has some error to account for slight variances in material thickness, bend deduction calculations, and more. The challenge lies in making sure the error is absorbed by a noncritical dimension.